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Variation in bioactive principles and bioactive compounds of Rosa rugosa fruit during ripening
J Plant Biotechnol 2019;46:236-245
Published online September 30, 2019
© 2019 The Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.

Minjeong Kwak · Seung Hee Eom · Jinsu Gil · Ju-Sung Kim · Tae Kyung Hyun

Department of Industrial Plant Science and Technology, College of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
Major in Plant Resource and Environment, SARI, Jeju National University, Jeju, 63243, Korea
Received August 22, 2019; Revised August 29, 2019; Accepted August 30, 2019.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process involving a number of biochemical and physiological processes assisted by variations in gene expression and enzyme activities. This process generally affects the phytochemical profile and the bioactive principles in fruits and vegetables. To appraise the variation in bioactive principles of fruits from Rosa rugosa during its ripening process, we analyzed the changes in antioxidant and anti-elastase activities and polyphenolic compounds during the four ripening stages of fruits. Overall, an extract of unripe fruits contained the highest levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, and elastase inhibitory activity, compared with the extracts of fruits at other stages of ripening. Additionally, we found that the reduction of flavonoid content occurs because of decreased transcriptional levels of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway during the ripening process. Based on HPLC analysis, we found that the extract of unripe fruits contained the highest amount of myricetin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and p-coumaric acid and suggested that the antioxidant and anti-elastase activities of the extract obtained from stage 1, should be mediated by the presence of these compounds. Additionally, we analyzed the interaction sites and patterns between these compounds and elastase using the structure-based molecular docking approach, and suggested that chlorogenic acid strongly interacted with elastase. Together, these findings suggest that the maturity of fruits has profound effects on the pharmaceutical value of R. rugosa.
Keywords : Rosa rugosa, Antioxidant, Anti-elastase, In-silico docking

September 2019, 46 (3)
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Funding Information
  • National Research Foundation of Korea
      NRF-2017R1A4A1015515, NRF-2018R1D1A1B07043720
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